The Urban Park Movement of the 19th Century

At the end of the 18th century, with the highly developed industry and commerce, the scale of many European metropolises was excessively expanded, and the coordination and order peculiar to medieval cities were destroyed to a significant extend, resulting in the “capitalist city syndrome” of chaotic traffic order, sharp environmental deterioration, no longer pleasant scale, and gradual departure from the nature. The regular urban layout influenced by French gardens, such as the checkerboard urban pattern envisioned by Cabet and Owen, and the concept of “introducing nature into the city” influenced by British landscape gardens, became the basic criterion of urban design at that time.

As an important part of urban infrastructure, urban parks not only improve the urban environment, but also bring a lot of natural flavor to the city. The appearance of the new public garden also makes the garden design concept and design style have a thorough change.

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In the 19th century, the French garden design method with practicality as the core required to decide what kind of composition form should be adopted according to the garden area, terrain and the relationship with buildings, resulting in the prevalence of folded Chinese gardens. Garden design with the theme of “nature”, and strive to reproduce the characteristics of natural landscape, pay attention to the connotation of the garden, against all forms of simple plagiarism; It emphasizes the plant landscape based on botany and combines the romantic color with the trend of scientism. At the same time, pay attention to the garden design method of science, systematic and construction technology standardization.

However, under the guidance of the idea of conforming to the “public” interest and having four seasons with different sceneries, most gardens in the 19th century gave the impression that everything was a little, and a large number of irrelevant sceneries were piled together.

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